Head Injury & Concussions

What is a concussion?

A concussion is a mild brain injury that can cause headache, confusion, and memory loss. A concussion can happen after an injury to the head from being hit or falling.

Symptoms May Include:

  • Headaches
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty Concentrating
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness or trouble with balance
  • Being bothered by noise or light
  • Drowsiness
  • Sleep disruption
  • Mood or behavior changes
  • Memory loss

It may be recommended to have someone with you for the first 12-24 hours after injury to monitor for worsening symptoms. It is not necessary to be awakened overnight. Individuals with a concussion will recover more rapidly if they are allowed to sleep.

How is a concussion treated?

Most concussions do not require treatment and symptoms resolve on their own, but it can take time. Symptoms can go away within minutes to hours after the injury or may last for weeks. Most people fully recover after 10 to 14 days. Most concussions do not require brain imaging. To help your brain recover:

  • Rest your body: Get plenty of sleep and avoid strenuous exercise or too much physical activity if it worsens your symptoms.
  • Rest your brain: Avoid activities that need focused attention and concentration if it worsens your symptoms.
  • Limit screen time: yes, that includes your smart phone.
  • Avoid environments with loud noise and bright lights.
  • Do not drink alcohol until your symptoms resolve.
  • Avoid a second injury: a second head injury while you are still recovering from a concussion can result in serious complications.


Treat headache symptoms with over the counter pain medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Seek medical care immediately for the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting more than three times
  • A severe headache or a headache that gets worse
  • Seizure
  • Difficulty walking or talking
  • Vision changes
  • Numbness or weakness
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
  • Excessive drowsiness, inability to be awakened
  • Drainage of blood or fluids from ears or nose


It is important to avoid future concussions. Having multiple concussions may result in long term problems.

  • Wear a helmet when biking, rollerblading, or using a longboard or skateboard.
  • Always wear a seatbelt when driving or riding in a car.